CV Axle Shaft
October 28, 2015

U – Joints & Driveline


1. U – Joint Body or Cross
2. Trunnion
3. C-Clip
4. Bearing Cap
5. Needle Bearings (Located inside of Bearing Cap)

Operating Angles:

Standard U – Joints aren’t designed to run at extreme driveshaft angles unless they are specially constructed. As a rule of thumb, the angle of a driveshaft should not exceed 22degrees. However, some manufacturers do make quality high-angle driveshaft’s that operate dependably from 22 to 80 degrees. Extreme-angle driveshaftsare achieved by using a “Double Cardan” constant velocity joint. This is basically a joint with two u-joints.

Shaft RPM Operating Angle
5000 3.25°
4500 3.67°
4000 4.25°
3500 5.00°
3000 5.83°
2500 7.00°
2000 8.67°
1500 11.5°

This table is based upon the joint at rated load and life. Going above the rated load or angle will decrease the u – joints life. As a general rule of thumb, for each doubling of the operating angle, RPM, or load, the lifetime of the joint is decreased by half. Rated lifetimes are on the order of 3000hours.

In the typical off – road vehicle, a suspension lift is done to increase clearance and allow larger tires to be installed. To compensate for the larger diameter, lower gears are installed in the axles. The lift increases the angle of the shaft and the lower gears means the shaft has to spin faster for a given axle speed; both things are working in the wrong direction on this chart. No wonder, driveshaft problems are common in vehicles modified for off-road use.

Most Common Series U – Joints For Off Road

1310 (also 297X): – The 1310 (shown) is a 1/2 ton u – joint used in driveshafts for many Jeep applications and is retained via external snap rings; the ones that slightly resemble a pretzel. The 297X u – joint is effectively the same size but with intern al snap rings used for steering knuckle joints on most Dana 44 and Corporate 10 bolt front axles.

1330 – This is a 3/4 ton driveshaft u – joint most often found at the pinion yoke going int o Dana 60 front or rear axles. The 1330 shares the same cap size as the 1310 but with a larger cross.

1350 – Most 1 ton trucks of yester – year used these joints (middle joint in picture) in their driveshafts but could be found in 3/4 ton and 1/2 tons occasionally. Note the cross is the same size as the 1330 to its left but the bearing caps, and therefore the “Trunnion” that they pivot on are larger, i.e. more strength.

1410 – In recent year s, the Super Duty line from Ford, and Chevy and Dodge H.D. series are using even beefi er joints in their driveshafts. The 1410 can be consider ed a 1.25 ton joint and is appropriate when behind the torque mons ter diesel engines from the Big Three.

1480 – his joint (farthest right) is most commonly a steering knuckle joint rather than a driveshaft u – joint and resides inside the knuckles of Dana 60 and 70 front axles. In a driveshaft application, it could be considered as a 2 ton joint . Keep in mind that a steering knuckle joint sees 3 – 5 times as much torque as the driveshaft joints strictly from the ring and pinion reduction. It is further multiplied by having the steering turned to anything other than straight.


297X vs 760X – Spicer phased out the old dependable 297X u-joint and replaced it with the new 760X. Shown is a new Spicer 5-760X cross and bearing kit next to the old 5-297X. These joints are an updated design and have a cold-forged cross which has repeatedly been shown to be much stronger than the 297’s hot-forged cross, with a much longer fatigue life. This should help to further put the brakes on broken u-joints.

The bearing caps of the U-Joint are pressed into the Yoke and held in place with a C-Clip, an Internal Snap Ring, or a Full Circle Snap Ring. Vehicles that see heavy off-road use should use an internal or full circle snap ring. If C-Clip style u-joints are only available for your application, you can have them modified to accept full circle clips.


When pushed real hard with locking differentials & oversized tires, the joint’s bearing caps often will try to ‘spin’ in the yoke as the joint operates. As it rotates, it often “spits” off u-joint c-clips and then the cap is free to walk out of the yoke, departing from the axle (if it doesn’t get crushed by the Balljoint Stud first). The U-Joint trunnion then rips apart the axle yokes, causing a catastrophic failure. Even if it doesn’t break the yoke, it will still stretch them out so they won’t properly hold the cap anymore.


K1 Snap Ring Dimension D1 Bearing Cap Diameter K2 Snap Ring Diameter D2 Bearing Cap Diameter OEM Manufacturer OEM Series Convert This Series To This Series Part # Notes
1.4430 .9380 1.5000 .9690 ROCK L6N 1000 L6N 5-430X  
1.4820 .8860 1.4820 .8860 MAZDA       5-1514X  
1.4930 .9710 1.4930 .9710 ROCK L6N     5-92X  
1.4960 .7870 1.4960 .7870 DAT-TOY       5-1500X  
1.5000 .9380 1.5000 .9380 SPICER 1000     5-170-1X 1
1.5000 .9380 1.5000 .9380 SPICER 1000     5-170X  
1.5000 .9380 1.5000 .9380 SPICER 1000     5-110X  
1.5000 .9380 1.5000 .9380 SPICER 1000SG     5-103X  
1.6400 1.0620 1.6400 1.0620 SPICER 1210WJ     5-456X  
1.7180 1.0000 1.7180 1.0000 SPICER 1100     5-105X  
1.7230 .9840 1.7230 .9840 MAZDA       5-1504X  
1.7340 .9840 1.7340 .9840 DATSUN       5-1501X  


  1.0620 1.8280 1.0620 ROCK L12N 1140 L12N 5-242X  
2.0470 1.1420 2.0470 1.1420 TOYOTA       5-1510X  
2.0800 2.0800 1.1420 2.0800 CHEV LUV       5-1515X  
2.1250 2.1250 1.0780 2.1250 DETROIT   7260   5-1306-1X 1
2.1250 2.1250 1.0780 2.1250 DETROIT   7260   5-1306X 2
2.1250 2.1250 1.0780 2.1250 DETROIT   7260   5-1306X  
2.1250 1.0780 2.6250 1.0780 DETROIT 7260 7290 7260 5-527X  
2.1880 1.0620 2.1880 1.0620 SPICER 1310WJ     5-74X 3
2.1880 1.0620 2.1880 1.0620 SPICER 1310WJ     5-260-1X 1
2.1880 1.0620 2.1880 1.0620 SPICER 1310WJ     5-260X  
2.1880 1.1880 2.1880 1.1880 SPICER 1310WJ     5-297-1X 1
2.1880 1.1880 2.1880 1.1880 SPICER 1310WJ     5-297X  
2.2000 1.0250 2.2000 1.0250 TOYOTA       5-1508X  
2.2080 1.1020 2.2080 1.1020 DATSUN       5-1505X  
2.3430 1.0620 2.3430 1.0620 SPICER 1310     5-350X  
2.3440 1.0000 2.3440 1.0000 MECH 2R       5-2011X  
2.3750 1.0620 2.3750 1.0620 CLEV S55     5-1200X  
2.3750 1.0620 2.3750 1.0620 CLEV S55     5-718X  
2.4530 1.4970 2.4560 1.4970 MER       5-1506X  
2.4530 1.4970 2.4560 1.4970 MER       5-1506X  
2.5200 1.2600 2.5200 1.2600 TOYOTA       5-1511X  
2.5620 1.1250 2.5620 1.2500 MECH S44     5-3147X  
2.5630 1.1240 2.5630 1.1240 MECH S44     SPL25-6X  
2.5630 1.1880 2.5630 1.1880 CLEV R55     5-1205X  
2.6250 1.1250 2.6250 1.1250 DETROIT 7290     5-1309X  
2.6260 1.1240 2.6260 1.1240 DETROIT 7290     SPL25-9X  
2.7810 1.3120 2.7810 1.3120 ROCK 44R     5-431X  
3.0000 1.2310 3.0000 1.2310 DETROIT 5380     5-1301X  
3.0000 1.3750 3.0000 1.3750 SPICER 1480WJ     5-88X 3  
3.1250 1.1880 3.1250 1.1880 CLEV O55     5-1206X  
3.2500 1.1250 3.2500 1.1250 MECH 4R     5-4015X  


1) Lube Fitting In Bearing Cap
2) Mercruiser Kit
3) Used In Closed End, Spicer Front Axle

U-Joint Cross Reference:
Are all the numbers confusing you? 1310 series, 1350 series and so forth? Here’s a sizing chart. Or simply contact Niagara Drivetrain at – or call us at 905-641-5464
“Your one stop Driveline Shop in the Niagara Region”
Niagara Drivetrain Centre Limited
620 Welland Avenue Unit 626-628
St. Catharines, ON
L2M 5V6

U-joint Series

U-Joint Width (inches) Cap Diameter (inches)

3.219 1.062

3.625 1.062

3.625 1.188

4.188 1.188

4.188 1.375

Driveline Parts and Components List and Brand Names Available At Niagara Drivetrain Centre Limited

Accessories Series-1330
Aggie Series-1350
Axle Series-1410
Back Shaft Series-1410
Balancing Series-1480
Ball Stud Tube Yokes Series-1550
Ball Stud Yokes Series-1610
Ball Yoke-Tube Yoke Series-1710
Bearing Cap Hardware Series-1760
Bearing Retainer Assemblies Series-1810
Bearing Seal Protectors Series-1880
Bearing Strap Assemblies Series-5C
Bolts Series-6c
Cap & Bolt Assemblies Series-7260
Cardan Joint Service Kit Greasable
Centre Bearings Shaft Assemblies
Centre Bearing Retainer Assemblies Shaft- Coupling
Centre Bearing Bracket Shaft -Joint & Shaft Assemblies
Centre Bearing Cushion Shaft Nuts
Centre Bearing Front Slinger SHAFTMASTER
Centre Bearing Rear Slinger Slinger
Centre Bearing Rubber Cushion Slip Yoke Assemblies
Centre Yoke Slip Yoke Centre
Companion Flanges-Circular Slip Yoke Dust Cap & Washer Kit
Companion Flanges-Circular Taper Hole Slip Yoke Flange Style
Companion Flanges-Spline Hole Slip Yoke -Hex, Square and Round
Companion Flanges-Straight Round Hole Slip Yoke Lube Fitting
Components Slip Yoke Plug
Computerized Balancing Slip Yoke Splined Sleeves
Computerized Driveshaft Balancing Slip Yoke Transmission
Constant Velocity Centering Repair Kits Slip Yoke Wing Bearing Style
Constant Velocity Shaft Small Parts
Coupling Shaft Snap Rings
Cross & Bearing Kit SPICER
Cross and Bearing Kits SPL-Spicer
Custom Built Driveshaft TRAKMOTIVE
Custom Built Shaft Trucks
Custom Made Driveshafts Tube Yoke
CV- Axle U-Bolt
CV Axle Shafts U-Bolt Assemblies
CV Shaft U-Joint
DANA U-Joint at Axle Pinion Yoke
Dust Cap U-Joint Grease Fitting-Zerk Fitting
Dust Cap assemblies U-Joint Half Round
End Yoke U-Joint Kits
End Yoke- Splined Holes U-Joint Kits-Inside Snap Ring
End Yoke-Hex & Square Hole U-Joint Kits-Outside Snap Ring
End Yoke-Slinger Style U-Joint Snap Rings
End Yoke-Steering Shaft-Serrated Hole -Snap Ring U-joint-4WD
End Yoke-Straight Round Hole U-Joint-Bearing Plate
End Yoke-Tapered Hole U-Bolt & Bolt Design U-Joint-Conversion
Flange Yoke-Bearing Plate Design U-Joint-High Wing Drilled
Flange Yoke-Snap Ring Design U-Joint-Low Wing Drilled
Flange-Companion-Circular U-Joints
Flange-Companion-Rectangular-Round & Taper U-Joint-Wheel
Flange-Companion-Straight Round Hole U-Joint-Wing Bearing
Flange-Spline Hole Universal Joint Kits
Front Shaft Wing Bearing
Industrial Yoke Shaft-Differential
Industrial Driveshafts Yoke Shaft-High Angle
Joint & Shaft Assemblies-Companion End Yoke Yoke Shaft-Wheel
Joint & Shaft Assemblies-Companion Flange Yoke-Ball Stud
Joint & Shaft Assemblies-Outboard Slip Yoke Yoke-Center
Lock Strap-Full Round Yoke-Companion Flange
Lock washer Yoke-Constant Velocity Centering
Lock wires Round Yoke-End
Lube Fittings Yoke-Flange
NEAPCO Yoke-Slip Flange
Nuts Yoke-Slip-Hex, Square, Round
Outboard Slip yoke Yoke-Slip-Outboard
Parts Yoke-Socket Assembly
Passenger Cars Yoke-Splined Sleeve
Rear Yokes-Slip
Rear Shaft Yokes-Slip Assemblies
RPL-Rockwell Yokes-SPL
Seals Yoke-Transmission
Series-1000 Yoke-Tube
Series-1210 Yoke-Tube Aluminum